An overview of the topic of Facilitating Safe and Independent Toilet Transfers, based on our recent webinar on the topic.
Firstly, let us consider the definition of safe. This is defined by Merriam Webster (2021) as “free from harm or risk” or “protected from, or not exposed to danger or risk, not likely to be harmed or lost” (Oxford Languages, 2021). An occupational therapist must therefore consider whether any transfer can be classified as ‘safe’, or whether a better description is: the risk in transferring can be reduced to a reasonably practicable level.
The occupational therapy process is defined by the World Federation of Occupational Therapists (2021) as: assessment, planning, intervention and cooperation. As part of the assessment or evaluation of a person, an occupational therapist must understand an individual’s occupational profile, undertake an analysis of their occupations and performance in order to target intervention and create the desired outcomes. Part of this analysis is the review of risks. An element of the unique intervention that an occupational therapist can provide, is the facilitation of risks and Pentland et al (2018) states that it is the role of an occupational therapist to overcome the barriers that prevent people from doing the activities that matter to them and not to see risk as another barrier. Occupational therapists can manage risks in order for people to live meaningful, occupationally based lives.
The Royal College of occupational therapy published guidance for occupational therapists called ‘embracing risk: enabling choice’ in 2018, which encourages practitioners to embrace risk as part of their professional duty. Clinicians are encouraged to review this document and implement its philosophy in their day-to-day practice
Implementing the occupational therapy process, assessing occupational performance and identifying risk; then leads the clinician to develop an enablement plan which is shared with the client. For example, as part of an initial assessment, it may be identified that a person is struggling with sit to stand transfers when using the toilet. An activity analysis undertaken verbally with the client, identifies they have difficulty in wiping after using the toilet and are receiving help from a spouse. The enablement plan is developed alongside the client and aims to optimise occupational performance and support appropriate life roles.
An Aerolet Toilet Lift can help a person who is struggling with sit to stand transfers when using the toilet.
For more information on the Aerolet range, click here: https://www.closomat.co.uk/products/aerolet-toilet-lifts/
In this case, a number of ways in which to optimise occupational performance are evaluated with the client. It is established that the person is extremely unlikely to improve their occupational performance through rehabilitation and therefore, a compensatory approach is required. Evaluation of simpler items that facilitate toilet transfers is undertaken with the client and it is established that a raised toilet seat and a grab rail together with alternative techniques for wiping would not sufficiently reduce risks and promote independence. It is the experience of the occupational therapy practitioner that will ensure risks are sufficiently reduced, independence promoted and the client is worked with to find the right solution for them.
A Palma Vita wash and dry toilet can help overcome problems associated with conventional toilets such as needing to move, in order to wipe.
For more information on the Palma Vita, click here:
The occupational therapy code of conduct states that
“you enable individuals to preserve their individuality, self-respect, dignity, privacy, security, autonomy and integrity”.
“you empower people to maintain their own health and wellbeing and to manage their own occupational needs, wherever possible”.
Consequently, an occupational therapist needs to make appropriate recommendations to facilitate occupational needs and reduce risks in toilet transfers.
Recommendations should be based upon:
• Client goals
• Activity analysis
• Risk assessment
• Dignity issues
• The effect of roles on care and intimacy
• Is the equipment facilitating use of the toilet?
An experienced practitioner should critically appraise compensatory intervention around toileting. This includes evaluating toilet equipment and understanding that compatibility does not always support occupational performance.
• Does the provision of a combined raised toilet seat and frame support the use of a toilet by other family members?
• When a wheeled shower chair is placed over a wash dry toilet, is the cleaning action still effective to eliminate the need for additional wiping or drying?
Clinical reasoning in occupational therapy requires the consideration of clients’ current and future occupational functioning, and how they engage and relate to others in the environment (Scanlon and Brentnall, 2017). However, this can be taken further as robust clinical reasoning involves the appraisal of the effectiveness of the equipment designed to facilitate occupation in each individual case.
• A safe transfer may not ever be possible, however, risks can be managed and reduced.
• A thorough occupational assessment can facilitate safer transfers and reduce risks.
• Equipment and adaptations improve occupational performance via a compensatory approach: however, critical appraisal and activity analysis are crucial. It is essential that occupational therapy practitioners are critical thinkers.
Merriam Webster 2021 retrieved from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/safe Accessed on 18.09.2021.
Oxford Languages (2021) via Google’s English Dictionary: https://languages.oup.com/google-dictionary-en/
Scanlan, J & Brentnall, J, Clinical reasoning in occupational therapy practice in Brown, T., Bourke-Taylor, H., Isbel, S. & Cordier, R. Eds. (2017) Occupational Therapy in Australia: Professional and Practice Issues, London: Routledge
WFOT (2021) About occupational therapy retrieved from: https://wfot.org/about/about-occupational-therapy accessed on 05.10.2021