Meaning: activities of daily living.
The detail: Toileting is included as one of the key 5 ADLs i.e activities performed on a daily basis,
necessary for independent living. The five are: eating, bathing, dressing, toileting (being able to get on
and off the toilet and perform personal hygiene functions), transferring (being able to get in and out
of bed or a chair without assistance) and maintaining continence (being able to control bladder and
Meaning:Disabled Living Aid
The detail:(NB also used for Disability Living Allowance). Can also be referred to as a Disability Aid,
which covers any piece of equipment that helps someone with an impairment
Single handed care:
A ‘buzz phrase’ within moving and handling. Commisioners see it as the use of equipment that
enables a single carer to assist a client or patient eg ceiling track hoists. Clients/ patients see it as a
more dignified approach to their care, in that such kit can enable a family member to care for them
rather than a stranger. OTs regard it as a holistic approach to reduce care intervention: on that
basis, all Closomat core products (all the shower toilets, Aerolet) deliver single handed care, in that
either a single carer/ family member can help the client/patient, or they are enabled to do things by
themselves (truly single handed!).
Meaning: Patient reported outcome measures
The detail: a report coming directly from patients about how they feel or function in relation to a
health condition and its therapy without interpretation by healthcare professionals or anyone else”
(Patrick et al, 2008)
Meaning: patient experience measures
The detail: An indicator of the quality of patient care, although do not measure it directly. PREMs
are most commonly in the form of questionnaires. In contrast to PROMs, PREMs do not look at the
outcomes of care but the impact of the process of the care on the patient’s experience e.g.
communication and timeliness of assistance. They differ from satisfaction surveys by reporting
objective patient experiences, removing the ability to report subjective views.
Meaning: Quality of Life
Meaning: health related quality of life. The WHO (World Health Organisation) includes physical and
physchological health, and level of independence as specific categories under HRQoL
Meaning: Long term conditions
The detail: the measurements help determine the classification of disability, such as is the condition
expected to last 12 months or more, does it limit the ability to undertake ADLs
Medical model of disability
The detail: the model views people as being disabled, impaired and ‘different’, and that their needs should
be addressed by medical and other treatments to help ‘fix’ them (even if their disability is not necessarily
causing any problems). So the medical model looks at ‘what needs to be fixed’ with the person, not at his
or her strengths or needs. It is now predominantly replaced with the social model of disability.
Social model of disability
The detail: the model focuses on reducing or removing the barriers people with disabilities face. It’s not
about ‘fixing’ people – it’s about working with them to help them achieve their goals, aspirations and full
potential. It recognises people with disabilities as full, valued and included members of our communities
with the same rights and responsibilities as everyone else.
The detail: the concept focuses on the results a client/ patient is trying to achieve rather than focusing
only on the services available. It addresses preferred solutions to achieve the desired outcome
Meaning: functional independence measure
The detail: FIMs assess the patient’s ability to 1. perform self-care skills (e.g., feeding and dressing), 2.
control bowel/bladder function, 3. transfer, 4. move (e.g., gait and stair climbing), 5. communicate, and
6. interact socially, including memory and problem solving.
The detail: monitoring and assessing the impact of the outcome eg did the installation of a Closomat
enable the person to undertake toileting unaided
Health (related) outcomes
The detail: Health outcomes are changes in health that result from measures or specific health care
investments or interventions.
The detail: a health issue that puts a significant limitation on your independence, for 3 months or
The detail: where support is needed on an ongoing basis, rather than short term (recovering from an
Cost of care:
The detail: the costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of
procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from health expenditures, which refers to
the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged,
regardless of cost
‘year of care’
The detail: the cost of providing care support/ intervention over a year. It has become the yardstick
by which commissioners evaluate best value.NB YOC was also a pilot scheme to embed personal care
planning for the long term (i.e. a year) for people with LTCs